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In this section you will find our Newsletters giving you an updated overview of what is happening in the heart of the Amazon rainforest and, more concretely, on the Venezuelan share of this vast region. The Venezuelan Amazon region alone is larger in size than Norway and larger than many EU countries.

 We launched our first newsletter on Earth Day 2024 aiming at calling for an increased focus on this part of the Amazon that is not getting sufficient attention even though its rich biodiversity and indigenous communities are facing tremendous destruction and suffering due to state-promoted illegal mining. 

NEWSLETTER # 1
(April 2024)

International legal framework on environmental defense, biodiversity and protection of indigenous populations:

There are a large number of international conventions, declarations and treaties aimed at protecting the environment and promoting conservationism and biodiversity as well as defending human rights, environmental rights and protecting indigenous peoples.

Although they are not fulfilled today, Venezuela has ratified some of the most important international agreements on this matter.

During recent years, however, consistent with its policy of environmental destruction and disregard for human and environmental rights, the Venezuelan Regime has evaded these types of agreements. A recent example is the Escazú Agreement, which constitutes a powerful tool of legal protection for our indigenous populations since it enshrines the rights of information, participation, consultation and access to justice in environmental matters.

Here you will find general information about some of these Agreements:

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (ratified by Venezuela)

What is it?

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

Texto de la Declaración:

Report ofthe UnitedNations Conference on Environment and Development

 

Convention on Biological Diversity (ratified by Venezuela in 1994)

What is it?

https://www.cbd.int/undb/media/factsheets/undb-factsheets-es-web.pdf

Text of the Agreement:

Spanish: https://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-es.pdf

English: https://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf

 

ILO Convention No. 169 on indigenous and tribal peoples (ratified by Venezuela in 2001):

What is it?

Gaia Amazonas -¿Qué es el Convenio 169 de la OIT y por qué es tan importante?

Text of the Agreement:

CONVENIO núm (ilo.org)

 

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

What is it?

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, September 13, 2007, by a majority of 144 states in favor, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Russian Federation, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Samoa and Ukraine).

Today, the Declaration is the most comprehensive international instrument, other than ILO Convention 169, on the rights of indigenous peoples. It establishes a universal framework of minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the world’s indigenous peoples and develops existing standards of human rights and fundamental freedoms as they apply to the specific situation of indigenous peoples.

Text:

Spanish: UNDRIP_S_web.pdf

English: UNDRIP_E_web.pdf

French: untitled (ohchr.org)

 

Escazú Agreement (has not been signed by Venezuela)

What is it?

Acuerdo Regional sobre el Acceso a la Información, la Participación Pública y el Acceso a la Justicia en Asuntos Ambientales en América Latina y el Caribe | Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (cepal.org)

Text of the Convention (several languages):

Acuerdo Regional sobre el Acceso a la Información, la Participación Pública y el Acceso a la Justicia en Asuntos Ambientales en América Latina y el Caribe (cepal.org)

Regional Agreement on Access to Information, Public Participation and Justice in Environmental Matters in Latin America and the Caribbean (cepal.org)

S1800561_fr.pdf (cepal.org)

 

Minamata Convention on Mercury (Signed by Venezuela in 2013 – It has not been ratified)

What is it?

Convenio de Minamata sobre el Mercurio | Observatorio del Principio 10 (cepal.org)

Text of the Agreement:

Minamata-Convention-booklet-Sep2019-SP.pdf (mercuryconvention.org)

 

Paris Convention

What is it?

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international climate change treaty. It was approved and signed by 189 countries on December 12, 2015 at COP21 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The main objective of the treaty is to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2 °C with respect to pre-industrial levels – period: 1850-1900, defined in 2018 – and to continue efforts to limit this increase in temperature. temperature at 1.5°C. To achieve this, countries aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as much as possible as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral planet by 2050.

Reports, Articles and Materials of Interest (in Spanish)

Official Reports

OECD report on illicit gold flows from Venezuela:

https://mneguidelines.oecd.org/flujos-de-oro-desde-Venezuela-apoyo-a-la-diligencia-debida-en-la-produccion-y-comercio-de-oro.pdf

Una mirada al Soberbio sur del Orinoco. Primera Edición Especial. – SVE (svecologia.org)(Explora Magazine 2018)

Characterization and Analysis of Some Key Socio-Environmental Variables in the Orinoco Mining Arc 03.27.21_informe-sig_v1.pdf (sosorinoco.org)

Summary Report (2020) of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights:ACNUDH | Venezuela: ONU publica informe sobre el control criminal de la region minera y sobre temas de la justicia en general. (ohchr.org)

Report (2020) of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights A/HRC/44/20 (cepaz.org)

Andrés Bello Catholic University Report on Contemporary Forms of Slavery in the Bolívar State: 2021-05-20. Formas Contemporáneas De Esclavitud En El Estado Bolívar. Una Perspectiva Género Sensitiva – Google Drive

CERLAS (Mayo 2020): Informe sobre la situación de derechos humanos en el arco minero y el territorio venezolano ubicado al sur del río Orinoco (unilim.fr)

Oro Mortal- Crimen organizado, ecocidio y corrupción ORO-MORTAL.pdf (transparencia.org.ve)

Informe FUNDAREDES sobre Arco Minero del Orinoco: ARCO MINERO DEL ORINOCO informe 1 (fundaredes.org)

Informe de la ONG en Alemania Einheit für Venezuela e.V AMO 09.2021 ES (einheit-venezuela.org)

Embajada (del gobierno interino) de Venezuela en Canada: El-Arco-Minero-del-Orinoco_Reporte-VF.pdf (embajadavenezuela.org)

Autana- Guerrilla, minería y narco tráfico al pie del Árbol de la Vida Minicaso-Autana_20201002.pdf (sosorinoco.org)

Informe GRIAM sobre migración y desplazamiento de comunidades indígenas de la Amazonia venezolana hacia Colombia (Abril 2021) Migración-y-Desplazamiento-de-Poblaciones-Indígenas-de-la-Amazonía-Venezolana-hacia-Colombia.pdf (provea.org)

Guidelines for MNEs – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (oecd.org) Gold Flows from Venezuela (oecd.org)

Informe de la Comision Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH) “Pueblos indígenas, comunidades afrodescendientes y recursos naturales: protección de derechos humanos en el contexto de actividades de extracción, explotación y desarrollo” IndustriasExtractivas2016.pdf (oas.org)

 

Artículos Varios

 

  • Devastación ecológica:

Los desafíos ambientales de Venezuela en el 2021 (mongabay.com)

El pueblo y los bosques venezolanos sufren a medida que avanza la minería ilegal Arco Minero Destroys Venezuelan Forests | Global Forest Watch Blog

ANÁLISIS: El mundo debe detener la destrucción ambiental en Venezuela – Primer Informe

La Amazonía Venezolana y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio 2011 by WATANIBA – issuu

Depredación minera frente a los ojos del tepuy Roraima: https://prodavinci.com/depredacionminera/

Venezuela- El país de los contrabandistas (Ganador del Premio Fundación Gabo) https://fundaciongabo.org/es/blog/laboratorios-periodismo-innovador/ganadores-de-premio-gabo-marcan-tendencia-cubriendo

https://www.cambio16.com/mineria-ilegal-arrasa-el-sur-de-venezuela/

2018-011-Es.pdf (iucn.org)

 

  • Desplazamiento, Abusos y Violaciones de Derechos humanos de las comunidades indígenas:

Firearms against bows and arrows in Venezuela: the Yanomami were killed for the gold of their territories – Infobae

Evolución de la violencia en el entorno minero del estado Bolívar (marzo de 2016 – febrero de 2019) – Observatorio de Ecología Política de Venezuela (ecopoliticavenezuela.org)

La necesaria y urgente extensión de medidas cautelares de protección a los pueblos y territorios indígenas de la Amazonía venezolana – RAISG (amazoniasocioambiental.org)

Arco Minero es un foco de violaciones de derechos humanos (proiuris.org)

Una mirada profunda a la esclavitud de mujeres en el Arco Minero (cinco8.com)

Unos 900 indígenas venezolanos huyeron de la violencia y la minería ilegal | Las noticias y análisis más importantes en América Latina | DW | 29.04.2019

ACNUR – Más de la mitad de los indígenas venezolanos en Brasil han recibido el apoyo del ACNUR

Venezuela: el líder indígena que enfrentó a la minería y acabó exiliado (mongabay.com)

Informe sobre la Situación Actual de los Grupos de Pueblos Indígenas en Aislamiento Relativo y Poco Contacto en Venezuela (Jödi, Uwottüja, y Yanomami). Octubre 2017 informe-situacion-grupos-aislados-venezuela.pdf (trabalhoindigenista.org.br)

 

  • La contaminación por Mercurio

 

https://www.amnistia.org/en/blog/2019/09/11553/la-mayor-tragedia-en-el-arco-minero-es-la-contaminacion-por-mercurio

Situación de violación a los derechos humanos como consecuencia de la contaminación por mercurio utilizado en la explotación de oro en la región sur de Venezuela | Clima21

Derechos Humanos Y Contaminacion por Mercurio (en Ingles) HR_Mercury1.pdf (ciel.org)

 

 

Artículos y material de Interés (en inglés)

 

Official Reports and selected Articles in international media

 

OECD Report on illicit gold flows from Venezuela and related criminal activities https://mneguidelines.oecd.org/gold-flows-from-venezuela-supporting-due-diligence.htm

Venezuela’s environmental crisis: ‘the beginning of a wave of destruction’ | Financial Times (ft.com)

SOS Orinoco – Help save the Orinoco Region of Venezuela

2021 Deforestation Report by WWF deforestation_fronts.pdf (panda.org)

https://svecologia.org/insight-to-mighty-southern-orinoco-ii-edition

UN releases report on criminal control of mining area and wider justice issues:https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26096

Coltan: The Venezuelan Regime’s Smuggling of“Blue Gold”: https://sosorinoco.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Coltan_ENG-202005.pdf

https://sanctionsassociation.org/smugglers-paradise-how-venezuela-is-using-blood-gold-to-circumvent-u-s-sanctions/

https://www.crisisgroup.org/latin-america-caribbean/andes/venezuela/073-gold-and-grief-venezuelas-violent-south

Gold mining devastation beneath the eyes of Roraima Tepuy (correodelcaroni.com)

 

Articles and investigative research by Dutch journalist Bram Ebus:

 

Venezuela’s Mining Arc boom sweeps up Indigenous people and cultures (mongabay.com)

Venezuela’s Gold Heist: The Symbiotic Relationship between the State, Criminal Networks and Resource Extraction | Request PDF (researchgate.net)

Militarization and mining a dangerous mix in Venezuelan Amazon (mongabay.com)

Digging into the Mining Arc- The destruction of 110 thousand square kilometres of forests in the largest mining project in Venezuela: https://arcominero.infoamazonia.org/

 

 

Others:

Venezuela’s Ecocide Needs International Attention | Center for Strategic and International Studies (csis.org)

Illegal Mining in Venezuela is Exacerbating Violence, Ecocide, and Global Corruption. The International Community Must Act. | Freedom House

Human Rights and Ecocide in Venezuela | OFM JPIC

https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2021/02/22/venezuela-environment-mining-gold-maduro-destruction/

https://www.youth4nature.org/blog/venezuela-environmental-and-human-injustices-arco-minero-ecocide

https://revista.drclas.harvard.edu/the-venezuelan-gold-rush/

Venezuela: Violent Abuses in Illegal Gold Mines | Human Rights Watch (hrw.org) Feb 2020

https://insightcrime.org/news/colombia-backdoor-for-venezuelan-coltan/

https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/ngos-warn-conflict-gold-can-reach-swiss-refiners-via-dubai/45907788

file:///C:/Users/a130339/Downloads/Beneath_the_Shine_-_July_2020.pdf

Ethics and Climate Change A Study of National Commitments https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/EPLP-086.pdf

Organized-Crime-and-Illegally-Mined-Gold-in-Latin-America.pdf (globalinitiative.net)

 

 

 

Artículos y material de Interés (en francés)

 

https://www.espaces-latinos.org/archives/103361

https://www.lefigaro.fr/international/les-ravages-de-la-ruee-vers-l-or-dans-l-amazonie-venezuelienne-20211228?utm_source=app&utm_medium=sms&utm_campaign=fr.playsoft.lefigarov

Forêt amazonienne au Venezuela : l’autre massacre – L’Express (lexpress.fr)

L’Amazonie vénézuélienne dévastée par «l’or du sang» (lefigaro.fr)

Commerce – Dans l’Amazonie vénézuélienne, tout se paie en or | 24 heures

L’Amazonie, une richesse convoitée | Euronews

Signature d’un pacte pour la protection de l’Amazonie | Euronews

https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/47229

 

Articulos con enfoque legal:

El Arco Minero del Orinoco Diversificación del extractivismo y nuevos regímenes biopolíticos | Nueva Sociedad (nuso.org)

https://law.lclark.edu/live/blogs/125-orinocos-mining-arc-an-environmental-crime-with